Biometrics is the science and technology of measuring and analyzing biological data. In information technology, biometrics refers to technologies that measure and analyze characteristics of the human body for authentication purposes. These characteristics encompasses DNA, fingerprints, eye retinas and irises, voice patterns, facial patterns, hand measurements such as hand geometry, blood veins and fingerprints, or any other unique quantifiable biological features.

Essentially, biometrics technologies measure a particular set of a person's vital statistics in order to determine identity. Common examples include fingerprint scanning, retinal scanning, facial recognition, and voice analysis. Authentication using biometric verification has become increasingly common in corporate and public security systems, and many other applications.

The US National Research Council in their 2010 report titled Biometric Recognition Challenges and Opportunities, defines Biometrics as:

“ ..the automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioral and biological characteristics. It is a tool for establishing confidence that one is dealing with individuals who are already known (or not known)—and consequently that they belong to a group with certain rights (or to a group to be denied certain privileges). It relies on the presumption that individuals are physically and behaviourally distinctive in a number of ways. Biometric systems are used increasingly to recognize individuals and regulate access to physical spaces, information, services, and to other rights or benefits, including the ability to cross international borders. The motivations for using biometrics are diverse and often overlap. They include improving the convenience and efficiency of routine access transactions, reducing fraud, and enhancing public safety and national security.”